Practice and Enlightenment of popularizing garbage

  • Detail

The practice and Enlightenment of popularizing waste classification in Japan

domestic waste treatment in Japan is divided into source classification, incineration based and terminal landfill, which has achieved harmless and resource-based utilization, with recycling accounting for 20%. Garbage classification has been integrated into the daily life of Japanese people and has become an indispensable way of life

implementation background and stage of waste classification

in the 1950s, Japan entered a period of rapid economic growth, people's living standards have been greatly improved, the amount of waste has also increased sharply, the phenomenon of waste littering can be seen everywhere, and environmental problems have become prominent. In 1964, Japan took the Tokyo Olympic Games as an opportunity to carry out the "capital beautification campaign", which awakened the people's environmental awareness

in the 1960s and 1970s, Japan broke out the "Tokyo garbage war", the cause of which was that the garbage treatment procedure was to incinerate combustible garbage in all districts of Tokyo, and transport non combustible garbage to the south for reclamation. On the site selection of the landfill site, various districts had differences. The residents of Shanhe District protested fiercely, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Government had to build the landfill site in Jiangdong District. As a large number of garbage trucks drive into Jiangdong District every day, resulting in traffic jams, flies and insects, sewage turbulence, and stench, residents complain that the thin-film transistor (TFT) polarizing film brightening film project, LCD backlight film group brightening module project is the leading sound carrier, so residents in Jiangdong district began to take actions such as preventing garbage trucks from entering to protest this treatment. Tokyo has also transported garbage to Hokkaido, Shikoku, Kyushu and other places, which have been boycotted one after another. This opposition movement lasted for eight years and turned into a game between cities and districts, and between districts

after this incident, in order to effectively implement waste treatment and environmental protection, Japan began to implement a waste classification system. After more than half a century of exploration, garbage classification has formed a standardized and systematic way of life and development

in general, garbage classification in Japan has mainly gone through the following stages

the 1960s and 1970s were the first stage, mainly in the form of landfilling. The amount of garbage increased sharply, and the amount of garbage produced could not keep up with the processing capacity, causing a "garbage war" between various districts

the 1980s was the second stage. Japan began to try to carry out simple waste classification, using incineration instead of landfill, and people gradually formed the habit of waste classification

The 1990s was the third stage. Garbage was recycled and reduced from the source, garbage classification methods were further improved, recycling rates were improved, and garbage incineration was dominant

entering the 21st century is the fourth stage, and vigorously carry out resource reuse. Japan launched the construction of a circular society, promulgated the basic law for promoting the establishment of a circular society aimed at the problem of garbage, and advocated the reduction of garbage generation through the 3R principles (reduce, reuse, recycle). The concept of circular society involves the whole process from material production, consumption, recycling to treatment, with the goal of recycling and reduction, and the whole society forms a sustainable lifestyle

main measures and significance of waste classification

first, publicity and education to arouse national self-examination. In the 1970s, Japanese writer Takahashi laid in his book ugly Japanese, self-criticism and Reflection on various uncivilized behaviors of local residents. During the Tokyo Olympic Games, the Japanese government took the opportunity to improve environmental sanitation, and covered garbage cans were promoted to be used, advocating garbage into baskets and unified collection. After experiencing the "garbage war", Tokyo residents realized that environmental problems were closely related to Preston Jones from the space center, and consciously classified garbage and supervised each other. Children have been taught garbage classification since kindergarten. Schools have set up garbage classification and recycling related courses. Children have been influenced by garbage classification methods since childhood in their families. The community has an environmental protection education center to publicize environmental protection concepts and teach environmental protection measures

the second is classification guidance, and formulate detailed rules for waste classification. The waste classification work should be done in detail, from the waste classification method to the waste disposal time. Print and distribute garbage classification manual, which has guidelines in different languages for foreigners. Strictly stipulate the time of garbage disposal, and publish the "household garbage collection calendar" separately. Some areas will develop special garbage bags, and certain types of garbage will be discarded with garbage bags of specific styles. The Classification Manual will be revised at regular intervals to adapt to actual changes

third, formulate strict legal systems to restrict the initial discarding behavior of garbage testing machines. Formulate laws at different levels to ensure the establishment of waste recycling system. Such as the basic law for promoting the establishment of a circular society in the top-level design; The waste disposal law and the promotion law of effective utilization of resources at the meso level; A series of legal rules on waste disposal, food recycling, household appliance recycling, etc. at the grass-roots level. In Japan, it is illegal to throw garbage without classification. The wrong garbage will be returned to your home. If you are complained, you will be fined, and if serious, you will also bear criminal responsibility. Foreigners may be repatriated

fourth, promote the concept of sustainable development and form a set of domestic waste treatment process. After the reform of the urban system in 2000, the waste treatment process was finally adjusted and optimized to become more effective. The 23 districts of Tokyo are responsible for waste disposal. Each district is responsible for the collection and transportation of waste within its own jurisdiction. The waste is incinerated in each district and transported to the landfill operated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government for landfilling. Each district can pay for the disposal of untreated garbage to other districts, which leads to the district government encouraging local residents to recycle and reduce garbage

in general, the process of popularizing garbage classification in Japan embodies the multiple meanings of physics, economics and environmental science. From the perspective of physics, garbage classification is an entropy reduction process, and the system gradually moves from disorder to order; From the perspective of economics, the location of waste treatment plants reflects the "avoidance effect", and the "tragedy of the commons" is avoided through public participation; From the perspective of environmental science, the result of waste reduction and recycling is to protect the ecological environment. Japan's continuous efforts on waste classification finally achieved good results. In 2015, the proportion of domestic waste incineration in Tokyo was as high as 75%, landfilling accounted for only 3%, recycling accounted for 20%, and the daily per capita domestic waste emission was 0.8 kg

some enlightenment from the practice of waste classification in Japan

the composition of domestic waste in China is similar to that in Japan. Japan's journey in promoting waste classification has certain reference significance for accelerating the implementation of waste classification system and building waste classification and treatment system in China

improve waste classification legislation and top-level design. Japan implements a strict waste treatment system, thanks to a sound legal system to ensure the gradual completion of classification work, and there are laws to follow from the macro level to the micro level. China should formulate laws and regulations related to waste treatment layer by layer from top-level design to detailed implementation, so as to provide legal basis and institutional guarantee for waste classification. At the same time, gradually improve and optimize the waste treatment process, implement policies according to the local conditions, and gradually promote it from the east to the west, from developed regions to underdeveloped regions, and from cities to villages, so as to form a treatment system suitable for China's national conditions

do a good job in publicity and popularization, and promote the conscious participation of the public. Garbage problems are closely related to residents' lives. The effect of overly abstract top-level design is not necessarily good, and the government is often thankless. The key to solving the problem is to get the approval of the grass-roots people. Publicity work should be done from the perspective of the whole process of garbage disposal. At the beginning, the grass-roots people did not know much about the original intention and principle of implementing waste classification. For example, some residents did not understand the classification logic of wet waste in the recent trial waste classification in Shanghai, which also produced some confusion and resistance. Therefore, the publicity process should not be limited to simple waste classification methods, but should focus on the whole process of waste generation, delivery, transportation and terminal treatment, so that residents can fully understand why and how to classify waste, finally understand and actively participate in the waste classification process, consciously develop a low-carbon lifestyle, and achieve the goal of waste reduction from the source. In terms of publicity methods, we should not stick to one pattern. We can develop

apps, distribute classification manuals or set up warning signs in communities and public places to facilitate residents to inquire about garbage classification methods and reduce confusion caused by unclear classification methods

build a garbage industry development system. Waste classification will drive the development of upstream and downstream industries and create jobs. Make full use of the existing urban waste recycling system (picking up garbage, recycling plastic bottles, etc.), and try to standardize the waste recycling method by means of corporate operation, collection, etc. Use marketization to activate the waste industry, attract social capital and professional service companies to participate in waste recycling and reuse, promote the "waste economy" to become a new growth point, improve the economic and social benefits of different healing agents, and form a virtuous circle. Explore the garbage payment system, and areas without garbage treatment plants can compensate the areas where garbage treatment plants are located. Establish a big data platform for waste treatment to monitor the total amount and composition of waste in various regions and waste treatment plants in real time

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI