The hottest global railway how British Railways co

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Global Railway: how British Railways cope with the crisis

Guide: Britain is the originator of world railway transportation, and has a glorious history. Stephenson invented the steam locomotive in 1814, and Britain began railway transportation in 1825. But now, the British railway has fallen into one of the most difficult periods in history, so that the government has to admit that there are serious problems in the British transportation system

Britain is the originator of railway transportation in the world and has a glorious history. Stephenson invented the steam locomotive in 1814, and Britain began railway transportation in 1825. But now, the British railway has fallen into one of the most difficult periods in history, so that the government has to admit that there are serious problems in the British transportation system. This is the result of the long-term development of many factors, which is easy to query and protect, and is still in development and change

the structure and changes of British Railway

the development of British railway has completed the large cycle of private state-owned private. The difference is that the latter privatization has a deeper color of government intervention than the previous one. From 1830 to 1947, the British Railway experienced vigorous development, free competition, the law of the jungle and went to a multi monopoly, and finally ended with the loss of the whole industry. At its peak in 1928, the total mileage of the railway in operation reached 32565 kilometers. From 1948 to 1993, the railway was nationalized, a perfect management system was established, and the classification, division and reorganization of railway business were realized. However, the national railway, which pays more attention to external benefits than internal benefit management, soon became a financial burden that the government could not bear. From 1993 to 1997, the ruling conservative government privatized and reorganized the state-owned railway. The national railway industry in the UK, which was originally under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of transport, was established in accordance with the "Railway Act". More than 120 private companies are using nylon to replace metal and thermosetting material industry companies, which are divided according to the principle of separation of ownership and operation rights of Railway infrastructure, forming a pattern of government command and supervision, private companies owning property rights, and operating and managing according to law

by 2001, the magnitude of the pulse will be achieved by adjusting the eccentricity of the eccentric crankshaft connecting rod mechanism. In July, there are 1 railway company, 25 domestic passenger transport franchising companies, 4 domestic freight companies, 1 international passenger transport company and 1 international freight company, 4 locomotive and vehicle leasing companies, 2 special transport companies, and a large number of vehicle and line maintenance and related service companies in the UK

in order to effectively supervise and guide the development of the railway industry and make it conform to the established policies and public interests of the government, through the practice of recent years, the government departments have formed official and semi official organizations such as local governments and regional ministries of transportation, the strategic Railway Administration, the railway Ombudsman's office and the railway passenger Council, which are responsible for formulating railway guidance strategies, development plans, the granting of franchise rights and the issuance of subsidies; Be responsible for fair competition and supervision of tracks, stations and yards; Responsible for the supervision of railway safety and safety standards and other systems with division of labor and cooperation, and strengthen macro guidance while improving supervision

the current problems faced by British Railways after the Labour government came to power in 1997, in order to realize its campaign commitments, it listed the improvement of education, health care and transportation as the three primary tasks of the government. Just when everything was developing in the desired direction, two major railway accidents completely changed the direction of development, causing a crisis of public trust in the railway passenger transport industry and a financial crisis for rail companies in the railway industry. On October 5, 1999, a train running a red light collided with an oncoming train at London Paddington Station, resulting in a major railway accident in which 31 people were killed and more than 500 injured. The post event analysis report of the authority revealed that if the railway and rolling stock were installed with the European railway control system of the European standard system, this accident could be completely avoided. On October 17, 2000, when a passenger train was passing a bend in Hartfield near London. 3. When adopting wheel amplitude load sensor, the steel rail was broken due to hairline cracks in the steel rail, and the train derailed. Four people were killed and many injured. In the following months, due to the tense maintenance of the lines dealing with the accident, the train operation was disordered, and the delay became a common occurrence. The public's trust in the railway declined. Many people turned to cars as a means of transportation, which generally increased the congestion of the already crowded highways by 3%, and even increased by 6% in some sections

in 2002, the development of the situation has not yet shown the turnaround that people expect. In the first quarter, the railway employees of several British railway passenger transport companies went on strike one after another due to the breakdown of wage negotiations between labor and capital and the failure of government mediation, and some trains were suspended. On the evening of February 28, a passenger train collided with a pickup truck on the track in Lincolnshire. The pickup truck driver died on the spot, and three of the passengers were sent to hospital for treatment

if the problem of British railway is limited to this, then invest the necessary funds and the solution of the problem is just around the corner. However, when the management and debt problems of rail companies surfaced, the government and the public found the seriousness of the problem

reality dashed the public's hope for British Railways and endangered the credibility of the ruling Labor government. The opposition parties accused the "third way" policy pursued by the ruling party government as the main reason for the decline of British Railways. The situation forced the government and the public to re-examine the railway status quo that they were proud of, review policies, and explore ways out. Countermeasures to change British Railways the problems of British railways are by no means overnight. The reasons include the following five aspects. First, the government, companies in the railway industry and the public have their own opinions, but public opinion generally believes that the investment in railway infrastructure, personnel training and research and development is seriously insufficient for a long time in the late nationalization period, which is the main reason. Second, due to the short time of privatization and reorganization, it is slightly hasty, and neither the legal preparation nor the knowledge and skills preparation of managers are sufficient. Third, there is an internal conflict of interest that is difficult to mediate between the ownership and management of the national railway infrastructure by private joint-stock companies and the hope of the government and the public that this monopoly company undertake social public welfare. Fourth, train operation is separated from railway infrastructure. Fifth, the railway industry composed of more than 100 companies has formed too many management and operation interfaces, which are fragmented, mutual containment, low efficiency, etc

after the privatization of British railways, the government did not give up. At the end of 1999, the whole industry entered a particularly difficult period. The government sized up the situation, took a variety of measures, made major adjustments to the policy, promoted the improvement of the management system, and actively formulated plans. A lot of work has been done to enable the British railway to achieve its fundamental purpose of providing safe, reliable and valuable services for passengers and cargo owners. Formulate a 10-year transportation plan. Anticipating the demand of economic development for the future railway and aiming at the long-term insufficient investment in transportation infrastructure construction, the British government announced a 10-year plan entitled "transportation 2010" in July 2000. It plans to invest 180billion pounds in the next 10 years to improve the land transportation system. Establish the railway safety bureau. After the Hartfield accident, in order to strengthen the railway safety supervision and improve the safety situation, the British government formally established the railway safety bureau with 150 employees on December 31, 2000 on the basis of the safety and Standards Department of the former railway and rail company. Promulgate the main railway plan. The British strategic Railway Authority issued the long-awaited main railway plan on January 14th, 2002. According to the objectives set in the 10-year transportation plan, the main railway plan comprehensively analyzes the opportunities and challenges faced by the railway industry, aims at the key problems to be solved, and determines the short-term, medium-term and long-term action plans. The main body plans to increase the investment of nearly 10billion pounds on the basis of the 10-year planned investment of 60billion pounds in transportation

it should be said that the British government and the railway industry responded quickly and took measures in place in response to the crisis. Therefore, as long as these strategic plans are effectively implemented, the revitalization of British Railways should not be on paper

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